Nicaragua's history has been plagued by the US military intervention that has shaped its politics throughout its history. Perhaps Nicaragua's best-known national hero and historical figure is Augusto Cesar Sandino, best known for his role in the civil war of the 1950s and 1960s.
In 1524 Hernandez de Cordoba led an expedition to Nicaragua, which succeeded in establishing the first permanent Spanish settlement in Nicaragua. In 1526 he was sent as governor of Panama, a country that had been permanently conquered by Spain.
With Spain no longer in the race, Nicaragua and other regions of Central America decided to join the Mexican Empire. But this lasted only a few years when Juan de Guzman, Mexico's first president, arrived.
However, separatist sentiment grew along the isthmus, and in July 1823 Nicaragua declared independence from Mexico. Nicaragua remained part of the Federation of Mexico and Central America until June 23, when the United Provinces of Central America met and declared independence. In 1824, however, the various Central American provinces declared independence again and Nicaragua ceased to be part of the Mexican Empire, forming another new governing body. In 1838 Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Costa Rica and Honduras became independent, Nicaragua did not.
Nicaragua was still part of the United Provinces of Central America until last year's civil war, which was an attempt to maintain a single, centralized government. Nicaragua was again a province of Mexico from 1838 to 1843, when it became a member of a short - but successful - Central American Federation with Honduras and El Salvador.
When the province of Nicaragua became dependent on the Audiencia de Guatemala in 1543, it also became dependent on the Audiencias de Panama. Nicaragua was ruled by the governments of El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala from 1542 to 1547, then by Honduras from 1643 to 1648.
By the end of the 15th century Nicaragua had been reduced to two provinces: Granada, which was located on Lake Nicaragua, and Leon, which was located on the north-west side of Lake Nicaragua near the present city of Managua. African slaves sent from Hispaniola, Cuba and Puerto Rico were replaced by locals. In the 16th century, many of these original colonial settlements disappeared in Nicaragua, leaving only the capitals of Granadilla, Leon and San Pedro de Leon.
The Spanish Crown, like other parts of America, such as Mexico and Peru, showed very little interest in Nicaragua. Spain showed little or no interest in Nicaragua in the 16th and 17th centuries, as it was anxious to exploit the enormous wealth of Mexico, Peru, and the Caribbean.
Spanish conquistadors like Juan Carlos González de la Torre, who traveled to Panama in 1522, had no choice but to establish a foothold in Nicaragua and conquer the country for the Spanish.
Gonzalez continued his exploration and reached the next settlement ruled by the Niquirano, a chief named Nicaragua (Nicarao, after which the country was named). The Niquirsano, who occupied the territory between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific coast, ruled the occupied territory under a rich ruler who lived in Nicarocali, now the city of Rivas.
Nicaragua's population is very mixed, but most of the known indigenous words come from Nahuatl, and the Mosquito Coast, which actually stretches from Nicaragua to Honduras, is closely linked to the Miskitos who lived in Nicaragua. The populations of these indigenous peoples are found in El Salvador and Honduras, but they were not the only ones to populate Nicaragua at that time. Nahuaas (Nauhua) and Nhuatl came from Mexico, traveled to Panama, spread to Nicaragua's bluefields and then to Guatemala.
The FSLN was named after the founder of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Nicaragua, General Juan Manuel Santos, and his son, President Juan Carlos Santos.
Dario lived in exile in his homeland, visiting Leon for a long time, working as a diplomat in Nicaragua and serving at the United Nations as a diplomat representing Nicaragua during the Cold War and the Second World War. Aleman also faced a border dispute during his tenure, and Walker sided with one side or the other, but he was able to take control of the country in the hope that the US would annex Nicaragua into a slave state in the south. Nicaragua is on the verge of civil war and is locked in an ongoing battle with Costa Rica over its border with Honduras, which continues to claim sovereignty over the Gulf of Fonseca. There is no doubt why the United States is determined to crush the revolution in Nicaragua as it spreads and spreads, as it has already done in El Salvador.
The first Nicaraguan song was recorded in Nicaragua in 1948 and is considered by many to be the song "El Caballo Cimarron," written by Victor M. Leiva (Managua, 1916), which represents the definitive and objective account of Nicaraguan history. Read more about celebrating Independence Day in Honduras and Nicaragua and learn the history of gaining independence in Nicaragua on September 15. Click on the following links to get a detailed history of Nicaragua, including information about the country's independence from the United States, the revolution, its history and its current situation.